In this book we have used the terms inoculation and variolation as synonyms, reserving vaccination for procedures involving cowpox or vaccinia virus. Small pox scabs found in library history channel on foxtel. Smallpox, the infectious disease caused by species of the variola virus varv, is probably one of the most terrible diseases to have affected human populations over the past hundreds of years. Smallpox zero is an excellent commemoration of the 30th anniversary of smallpox eradication. Does this photograph show two boys one vaccinated, one. The good news is that smallpox has been completely eradicated. The first edition of this book was nominated for a pulitzer prize in 1983. Abstract the definitive history of the worlds most triumphant achievement in medicine and public health. But it was also one of the first diseases to be controlled by a vaccine, which led to its eradication in 1980. Scientists think smallpox may have originated in africa about 3,000 years ago. Specific attention is paid to the development and utilization of dr. This disease, which starts with a distinctive rash that progresses to pusfilled blisters and can result in disfiguration, blindness, and death, first appeared in agricultural settlements in northeastern africa around 10,000 b. This text chronicles the worldwide effects of the killer disease, with particular emphasis on the 19th and 20th centuries, including the devastations of the speckled disease during great armed conflicts. During the 16th century, smallpox was a significant cause of death in europe.
The history of smallpox holds a unique place in human health and medicine. It seems plausible that it spread from there to india by means of ancient egyptian merchants. This apparent first smallpox epidemic on the northwest coast coincides with the first direct european contact, and is the most virulent of the deadly european diseases that swept over the region. The book strong points are in the description of smallpox origins, epidemiology, history of treatment and the birmingham incident. Longman, hurst, rees, orme and brown, 1815 312 pages. If taking a moment to elaborate on that point will make this book unpopular with a large group of antivaxxers, thats okay.
The smallpox agent was also exported to south america during this time and passed over both american continents 5, 6. Smallpox is believed to have first infected humans around the time of the earliest agricultural settlements some 12,000 years ago. Smallpox epidemic ravages native americans on the northwest. History of medicine, smallpox, revolutionary war, american history, vaccination, inoculation infectious diseases remain the leading cause of death in the developing world. In 31 chapters, this monumental work recounts the history of one of humanitys worst diseases, moving from ancient times, through the discovery of vaccination, to the spectacular wholed campaign that finally vanquished the disease. Occurring worldwide in epidemics, it killed up to 40% of those who contracted it and accounted for more deaths over time than any other infectious disease. Smallpox was a highly virulent, contagious disease. Connection is, obviously, central to a work that aims to explore world history in particular, rather than all history that has happened in the world. This picture book tells the story of the disease from its origin through eradication and beyond proposed fate of virus stock. The envelope was labeled as containing scabs from a vaccination and gave scientists at the cdc an opportunity to study the history of smallpox vaccination in the united states. Thanks to the success of vaccination, the last natural outbreak of smallpox in the united states occurred in 1949. The vaccinia virus, used as a live vaccine against small pox, is a relatively avirulent virus that is similar to cow pox, but its origins are not clearly understood. For centuries smallpox was one of the worlds mostdreaded diseases. It contains illustrative material both from who and from other published sources, as indicated.
Najera in the early 1700s, about a century before edward jenner conceived the idea of a smallpox vaccine based on the cowpox virus, smallpox was going through new england and other american colonies. The earliest evidence for the disease comes from the egyptian pharaoh ramses v, who died in 1157 b. An illustrated history of smallpox and its eradication. In 1810 moore was appointed director of the national. When the public feared that library books could spread deadly. The book initially introduces the disease and epidemiology of smallpox and the variola virus. The number of deaths 200 million is just astounding. The origin of smallpox as a natural disease is lost in prehistory.
Some of the vaccines were forced onto people which caused an outrage and the question made it all the way to the supreme court. Hendersons personal story of how he led the world health organizations campaign to eradicate smallpox the only disease in history to have been deliberately eliminated. Ask the aztecs and the incas whether or not they would have liked to have access to vaccines. One of the deadliest diseases known to humans, smallpox is also the only human disease to have been eradicated by vaccination. Indias first records of smallpox can be found in a medical book that dates back to 400 ce. Watts range is as wide as his predecessorsthere are chapters on plague, leprosy, smallpox, syphilis, cholera, yellow fever, and malaria. Goats and soda as history tells it, young edward jenner heard a milkmaid say shed had cowpox so couldnt get smallpox. It leaves the reader in no doubt of the scourge that variola was to. She was isolated at home with house guards posted 24 hours a day until she was no longer infectious.
The earliest written description of a disease that clearly resembles smallpox appeared in china in the 4 th century ce. Widespread noncommunicable diseases such as cardiovascular disease and cancer are not included. Edward jenner figure figure1 1 is well known around the world for his innovative contribution to immunization and the ultimate eradication of smallpox. Onesimus spreads wisdom that saves lives of bostonians during a smallpox epidemic february 3, 2019 rene f. Scientifically known as variola major, the deadliest form of smallpox has plagued mankind since time immemorial.
India, like china, created a goddess in response to its exposure to smallpox. In the case of the latter, the holders granted who permission to reproduce their material in this book. In the united states, heart disease has surpassed infectious diseases, but this change has only occurred in the last century 1. The earliest credible evidence of smallpox is found in the egyptian mummies of people who died some 3000 years ago. Moore follows the history of the disease from its first recorded appearance in asia and africa to arabia and finally to europe and america. The book is comparable to an encyclopedia in its comprehensiveness of the history of smallpox. This article is a list of known epidemics caused by an infectious disease. The milkmaid who supposedly inspired the smallpox vaccine was a myth. He has written or coauthored over 20 books, including the textbook of diabetes named bma book of the year and has contributed to more 30 others, including.
Shortlisted for the wellcome trust book prize 2010 williams recounts the history of smallpox in a breezy, accessible style. History today, a monthly magazine of historical writing published in london, calls this pandemic the greatest catastrophe ever. Smallpox has been identified as a possible agent of bioterrorism. Initial attempts to control the disease by variolation were controversial and dangerous. Describes the history of smallpox in the americas, covering the arrival of the spanish as carriers, its spread throughout the new world, the development of the smallpox vaccine, the elimination of the disease, and its potential use as a terrorist weapon. In this excerpt, moore describes the calamities and deaths caused by smallpox in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries as a result of european colonization of the americas. The earliest written description of a disease that clearly resembles smallpox appeared in china in the 4 th century ce common era. Feb 01, 2018 the milkmaid who supposedly inspired the smallpox vaccine was a myth. Thousands of years ago, variola virus smallpox virus emerged and began causing illness and deaths in human populations, with smallpox outbreaks occurring from time to time. The clearest description of smallpox from premodern times was given in the 9th century by the persian physician, muhammad ibn zakariya arrazi, known in the west as rhazes, who was the first to differentiate smallpox from measles and chickenpox in his kitab fi aljadari waalhasbah the book of smallpox and measles. The last known case in the wild occurred in a hospital cook in somalia in 1977 who fortunately had the less severe form. This picture book tells the story of the disease from its origin through eradication and beyond proposed fate of. But, in 1978 a photographer in england died of smallpox after photographing areas were smallpox virus stocks were kept. Smallpox and its eradication was published by who in 1988 isbn.
An illustrated history of smallpox and its eradication jonathan roy african comic production house, johannesburg, south africa, 2010 isbn. Empires toppled like sandcastles in the wake of diseases we do not give a second thought to today. Aug 22, 2018 take a look back at the history of the pernicious disease. The story of smallpox by gareth williams goodreads. Smallpox is thought to date back to the egyptian empire around the 3 rd century bce before common era, based on a smallpox like rash found on three mummies.
The mysterious origins of the smallpox vaccine science. Apr 19, 20 scientifically known as variola major, the deadliest form of smallpox has plagued mankind since time immemorial. In late 1975, rahima banu, a threeyearold girl from bangladesh, was the last person in the world to have naturally acquired variola major and the last person in asia to have active smallpox. In the 9th century the persian physician, rhazes, provided one of the most definitive descriptions of smallpox and was the first to differentiate smallpox from measles and chickenpox in his kitab fi aljadari waalhasbah the book of smallpox and measles. Variolation was the subject of some of the earliest published clinical trials. Aug 23, 2019 at the height of the book scare, news outlets reported that dust from library books could spread infectious diseases such as tuberculosis, smallpox and scarlet fever. It was believed that this goddess was both evil and kind and had the ability to inflict victims. Now smallpox only exists in research labs in the united states and russia. This book tells the terrible history of smallpox, a saga that has new relevance given the awful possibility that someone might unleash the disease once again. A journal of midatlantic studies, also casts doubt. This book describes a disease that sounds exceptionally like smallpox.
Genetic analyses of viral dna isolated from a mummified child who had been interred in a church in lithuania suggest that variola virus had evolved by at least the 17th century. In the early 1900s, allan warner documented several cases of smallpox. Clive anderson, new scientist this extraordinary book brings alive the sheer horrors of smallpox and how mankind has managed to wipe it out using vaccination, pioneered by a gloucestershire country doctor in 1796. Although jenners accomplishment was a landmark event in the history of medicine, the vaccine that was eventually used to eradicate small pox was made from vaccinia, not cow pox. Smallpox is thought to have originated in india or egypt at least 3,000 years ago. Edward jenner and the history of smallpox and vaccination. Historian philip ranlet of hunter college and author of a 2000 article on the smallpox blanket incident in pennsylvania history.
Williamss book not only tells us about the history of smallpox before vaccination, and jenners discovery and the disputes and battles surrounding it, but also the subsequent history of smallpox vaccination and resistance to it, up to the smallpox eradication campaign led by donald henderson. An excerpt from the 1815 book the history of the small. The history of smallpox extends into pre history, the disease likely emerged in human populations about 10,000 bc. The book is a cross between a detective story with horror elements and a procedural in the vein of john grishams novel. Malcolm nicolson, british journal of general practice. Smallpox is thought to date back to the egyptian empire around the 3 rd century bce before common era, based on a smallpoxlike rash found on three mummies. Mar 21, 2020 smallpox, infectious disease that begins with fever and headache and proceeds to an eruption of the skin that leaves pockmarks. Jonathan tucker is an expert on smallpox and author of scourge, a book on the history. Vaccination was discovered by edward jenner in 1796. The hindu goddess shitala was both worshipped and feared during her reign. Smallpox is one of greatest scourges in human history.
Historys worst plagues and the heroes who fought them. Smallpox is the only human disease that has been successfully eradicated. History s worst plagues and the heroes who fought them. The politics of smallpox eradication chapter 10 the. An american history by michael willrich is a nonfiction book which traces how the smallpox vaccine was distributed during major outbreaks. Moore was an early advocate of vaccination, and this book is dedicated to edward jenner. Epidemics and history is a major contribution to the worthy tradition established by plagues and peoples. Stocks of smallpox and its eradication were exhausted some years ago and the book is now out of print. During the middle ages several smallpox outbreaks occurred in europe. Smallpox information and facts national geographic. In hopkinss history, smallpox was one of the most dangerous and influential factors that shaped the course of world events originally published as princes and peasants, 1983 includes bibliographical references p. This article, outlining the history of smallpox, is based to a considerable extent on the world health organization who monograph written by fenner et al published in 1986, entitled smallpox and its eradication. Hopkins provides a fascinating account of smallpox and its role in human history. Its dissemination was significantly related to global population growth and the movement of people across regions and continents.
Humanitys long history of making epidemics worse the. Starting with its origins 10,000 years ago in africa or asia, hopkins follows the disease through the ancient and modern worlds, showing how smallpox removed or temporarily incapacitated heads of state, halted or exacerbated wars. The 1770s smallpox epidemic affected a large area of the northwest coast of north america ranging from alaska to oregon. J e gessler scientifically known as variola major, the deadliest form of smallpox has plagued mankind since time immemorial. Starting with its origins 10,000 years ago in africa or asia, hopkins follows the disease through the ancient and modern worlds, showing how smallpox removed or temporarily incapacitated heads of state, halted or exacerbated wars, and devastated populations that had never been. This text chronicles the worldwide effects of the killer disease, with particular. Jan 23, 2003 a vaccination to smallpox was discovered in 1798 by an englishman and first used in puget sound during the 18361837 outbreak.
During the 1770s, smallpox variola major eradicates at least 30 percent of the native population on the northwest coast of north america, including numerous members of puget sound tribes. The geographical origin of the disease remains a matter of debate. The story of the rise and fall of smallpox, one of the most savage killers in the history of mankind, and the only disease ever to be successfully. Small pox scabs found in library 31 march 2003 on this day in 2003, new mexico librarian susanne caro opened an 1888 book on civil war medicine and discovered a startling memento. Angel of death is a lively and powerful account of our battle against. It forms one of the major ways that we bring remote peoples and places into the same analytical frame. List of books and articles about smallpox online research. An excerpt from the 1815 book the history of the small pox by james carrick moore. In her book pox americana, an account of the smallpox epidemic that spread throughout north america during the revolutionary war, the historian elizabeth fenn. In view of current concern about the threat of smallpox, who has decided with some urgency to make the book available on the world wide web. The aztecs could not have known that smallpox was endemic in europe at this time and that many in spain exposed to smallpox earlier were resistant or immune to subsequent infection by this virus. Some have called this feat the greatest scientific and humanitarian achievement of. The yoruba people of nigeria hoped to avoid infection by worshipping sopona, the god of smallpox.
Smallpox has had a major impact on world history, not least because indigenous populations of regions where. Vaccination is one of the best things that has happened to civilization. However, formatting rules can vary widely between applications and fields of interest or study. If i had to choose only word to describe the greatest killer. Does this photograph show two boys one vaccinated, one not who were exposed to smallpox. The death of a disease the inside story of eradicating a worldwide killer d.1060 1354 535 351 1119 397 1095 930 476 361 732 195 1201 1474 1510 1240 1439 1047 883 259 72 746 535 885 771 381 343 631 346 1493 70 944 1268 187 190 319 1426 1229 1265 1029 660